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c language

The C programming language is a structure oriented programming language, developed at Bell Laboratories in 1972 by Dennis Ritchie

C programming language features were derived from an earlier language called “B” (Basic Combined Programming Language – BCPL)

C language was invented for implementing UNIX operating system

In 1978, Dennis Ritchie and Brian Kernighan published the first edition “The C Programming Language” and commonly known as K&R C

In 1983, the American National Standards Institute (ANSI) established a committee to provide a modern, comprehensive definition of C. The resulting definition, the ANSI standard, or “ANSI C”, was completed late 1988.

C PROGRAMMING LANGUAGE STANDARDS:

C89/C90 standard – First standardized specification for C language was developed by the American National Standards Institute in 1989. C89 and C90 standards refer to the same programming language.

C99 standard – Next revision was published in 1999 that introduced new features like advanced data types and other changes.

C11 AND EMBEDDED C LANGUAGE:

C11 standard adds new features to C programming language and library like type generic macros, anonymous structures, improved Unicode support, atomic operations, multi-threading and bounds-checked functions. It also makes some portions of the existing C99 library optional and improves compatibility with C++.

Embedded C includes features not available in C like fixed-point arithmetic, named address spaces, and basic I/O hardware addressing.

Operating systems, C compiler and all UNIX application programs are written in C language

It is also called as procedure oriented programming language. The C language is reliable, simple and easy to use. C has been coded in assembly language.

FEATURES OF C PROGRAMMING LANGUAGE:

C language is one of the powerful language. Below are some of the features of C language.

Reliability

Portability

Flexibility

Interactivity

Modularity

Efficiency and Effectiveness

USES OF C PROGRAMMING LANGUAGE:

The C programming language is used for developing system applications that forms a major portion of operating systems such as Windows, UNIX and Linux. Below are some examples of C being used.

Database systems

Graphics packages

Word processors

Spreadsheets

Operating system development

Compilers and Assemblers

Network drivers

Interpreters

WHICH LEVEL IS C LANGUAGE BELONGING TO?

There are 3 levels of programming languages. They are,

Middle Level languages:

Middle level languages don’t provide all the built-in functions found in high level languages, but provides all building blocks that we need to produce the result we want. Examples: C, C++

High Level languages:

High level languages provide almost everything that the programmer might need to do as already built into the language. Example: Java, Python

Low Level languages:

Low level languages provides nothing other than access to the machines basic instruction set. Example: Assembler

C LANGUAGE IS A STRUCTURED LANGUAGE:

Structure oriented language:

In this type of language, large programs are divided into small programs called functions

Prime focus is on functions and procedures that operate on the data

Data moves freely around the systems from one function to another

Program structure follows “Top Down Approach”

Examples: C, Pascal, ALGOL and Modula-2

Object oriented language:

In this type of language, programs are divided into objects

Prime focus is in the data that is being operated and not on the functions or procedures

Data is hidden and cannot be accessed by external functions

Program structure follows “Bottom UP Approach”

Examples: C++, JAVA and C# (C sharp)

Non structure oriented language:

There is no specific structure for programming this language. Examples: BASIC, COBOL, FORTRAN

KEY POINTS TO REMEMBER IN C LANGUAGE:

Færdigheder: C programmering, PHP, Software Arkitektur

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