Conductometry: The conductometric sensor detects changes in conductance between two electrodes according to the Ohms Law. A conducting polymer 'polyaniline' is deposited between two electrode. the conductance of polyaniline is sensitive to the pH in its normal form. So, we can detect any chemical reaction involving change (increase or decrease) of pH. The other process which affects the conductance of the polymer is the conformation change (secondary doping). If the chemical reaction does not involve any change in hydrogen ion (pH), a specific receptor is immobilized in the polymer matrix. Binding of the analyte with this receptor results in a conformation change and hence a change in conductance.
Potentiometry: The potentiometric sensor detects the change in the potential of the electrodes according to the Nernst Law. Nernst equation correlates the concentration of the analyte with the potential (which is very specific for a particular concentration, without interference of the other species present) called equilibrium potential. If the electrode is specific for a particular analyte then by measuring the equilibrium potential of the electrode we can determine the concentration of the analyte.
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